1.c.4 – What’s the use of specialization?

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December 27, 2009 — Riccardo Sabellotti - Giacinto Sabellotti

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What’s the use of specialization?

The species coexisting in a given environment can all be seen as a great and numerous community that tries to exploit all possible resources in order to perpetuate life.
Considering that the same structure cannot be suitable for all applications, in order of making the best use of various resources (that could be the different sources of nourishment), it was necessary to generate a growing variety of species, each specialized in conducting a particular lifestyle that takes advantage of special resources or favorable conditions. In this communities of species, called ecosystem, every form of life carries out a particular role as an actor in a drama. Surviving therefore means to obtain one of the available roles; this place is often defined as ecological niche.
A similar phenomenon occurs in the community formed by a single species, because, in order to make the best use of every chance of survival for the group, this forms inside of itself a populations specialized in performing a given activity. If we take as example an anthill, we can see that there are worker ants, warrior ants and a king and a queen for breeding purposes.
The same process was developed with the first multicellular beings, whose cells have specialized forming different tissues. The great anatomical complexity of the other animals is then due to the phenomenon of specialization.

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